UrinoVet®Dog is used in dogs to support the normal functions of the urinary tract:
- in patients with acute or chronic and recurrent infections of the urinary tract (UTI),
- in all patients treated for urinary calculus, irrespective of the type of the stone (urates, struvites or oxalates), after the procedures of the surgical removal of stones and catheterization
extract of cranberry (Vaccinum macrocarpon) 1:40
extract of parsley (Petroselinum crispum)
glucosamine (Glucosaminum sulfate)
UrinoVet®Dog 1 tablet per 10 kg of body weight.
Tablets should be crushed and mixed with food.
The animal should be provided with access to fresh water at all Times.
The mechanism of action
The mechanism of action of the UrinoVet Dog dietary supplement is based on scientifically concluded effects of its components
Cranberry-based products have been subject to wide-spread analyses to assess their efficiency in the treatment of infections of the urinary tract. Cranberry has been reported to be efficient in the prevention of urinary tract infections in animals in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Cranberry inhibits the adhesion of urinary tract pathogens with type I and P fimbriae (e.g. uropathogenetic E.coli) to the epithelium of the urinary tract. This hampers the process of bacterial colonisation in the urinary tract and the development of infections. The obtained results also suggest that anthocyanins and pro-anthocyanins in cranberry extracts have strong anti-adhesive properties. The substances in cranberry extracts may also inhibit the adhesion of pathogens with type P fimbriae to the urinary tract via other pathways, which reduces their adhesive properties. This may happen by altering the external properties of bacterial cells and by the reversal of zeta potentials (the electrical properties which exist in the place of contact of all solid and liquid matters) to positive potentials. Cranberry juice induces the changes of macromolecular conformation on the surface of E.coli with P-type fimbriae, which causes a reduction in the length and density of the fimbriae. Cranberry may also weaken the genetic expression fimbriae. The incubation of cranberry juice caused changes to their shape, from rod-shaped to round or from rod-shaped to baccilary (Howel, 2007)
The extract of parsley has diuretic properties. The stimulation of water removal is beneficial for dogs with false pregnancy as it reduces the swelling of mammary glands and impedes lactation. Parsley has strong diuretic properties as it reduces the activity of Na+/K+ATPase renal cortex and medulla. Such inhibition reduces the re-absorption of Na+ to cells, reduces the secretion of K+, increases the concentration of K+ in intercellular spaces and impedes the passive flow of K+ through intercellular tight junctions. The inhibition of the activity of the Na+ /K+ pump leads to smaller reabsorption of Na+ i K+, to the osmotic flow of water to the lumen of renal canals and finally to diuresis (Kreydiyyeh and Usta, 2002).
Glucosamine is a substrate for the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Its mechanism of action in the patients with bladder infection is based on the fact that the mucous surface of the bladder is covered with s thin layer of protective mucus which contains a specific GAG called GP-51 whose role it is to impair the adhesion of bacteria and crystals to the walls of the bladder. In some animals with infected bladder lower concentrations of GAG in that layer were reported. In some people with idiopathic bladder infection the use of GAG gave positive effects so it is thought that exogenic glycosaminoglycans may be secreted into urine and bind to the damaged epithelium of the urinary tract, which may reduce the permeability of the bladder walls for pathogens (Wallius and Tidholm, 2009).